The hottest sensor technology with rapid developme

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The rapid development of sensor technology

new sensors should roughly include: ① adopting new principles ② filling the sensor gap ③ bionic sensors and other aspects. They are interrelated. The working mechanism of the sensor is based on various effects and laws, which inspires people to further explore sensitive functional materials with new effects, and develop new physical property sensor devices with new principles. This is an important way to develop high-performance, multifunctional, low-cost and miniaturized sensors. Structural sensors developed earlier and are becoming more and more mature at present. Generally speaking, structural sensors have complex structure, large volume and high price. On the contrary, physical sensors have many attractive advantages, and their development in the past is not enough. All countries in the world have invested a lot of manpower and material resources in the research of physical sensors, which makes it a noteworthy development trend. Among them, the low sensitivity threshold sensor developed by using the effects of quantum mechanics and the first batch of key new materials using insurance compensation pilot devices to detect weak signals is one of the new trends

sensor integration includes two definitions. One is the juxtaposition of multiple components with the same function, that is, the single sensor elements of the same type are arranged on the same plane by the integration process, and the linear sensor arranged in one dimension, which is the case of CCD image sensor. Another definition of integration is multi-function integration. Integration, multi-function and intelligence means that the sensor is integrated with amplification, operation and temperature compensation to form a device

with the development of integrated technology, various hybrid integrated and monolithic integrated pressure sensors have emerged one after another, and some have become commodities. Integrated pressure sensors include piezoresistive, capacitive and other types, among which piezoresistive integrated sensors have developed rapidly and are widely used

the multifunctional sensor is also one of its development directions. As a typical example of the so-called multi-function, the monolithic silicon multi-dimensional force sensor developed by the sensor research and development center of a university in the United States can measure three linear velocities, three centrifugal accelerations (angular velocities) and three angular accelerations at the same time. The main components are a monolithic silicon structure composed of four cantilever beams correctly designed and installed on a substrate, and nine piezoresistive sensing elements correctly arranged on each cantilever beam. Multifunction can not only reduce the production cost and volume, but also effectively improve the stability, reliability and other performance indicators of the sensor

by integrating multiple sensing elements with different functions, it can not only measure multiple parameters at the same time, but also comprehensively process and evaluate the measurement results of these parameters, which can reflect the overall state of the tested system. It can also be seen from the above that integration brings many new opportunities to solid-state sensors, and it is also the basis of multi-function

the combination of sensor and microprocessor makes it not only have detection function, but also have artificial intelligence such as information processing, logical judgment, self diagnosis, and thinking, which is called the intellectualization of sensor. With the help of semiconductor integration technology, the sensor part is made on the same chip with signal preprocessing circuit, input and output interface, microprocessor, etc., that is, it becomes a large-scale assembly of sensors into intelligent sensors. It can be said that intelligent sensor is the product of the combination of sensor technology and large-scale integrated circuit technology. Its realization will depend on the improvement and development of sensor technology and semiconductor integration technology. This kind of sensor has the advantages of multi-function, high performance, small volume, suitable for mass production and convenient use. It can be said that it is one of the important directions of sensors

sensor material is an important basis for continuing the experimental technology after the sensor is powered on, and it is an important support for the upgrading of sensor technology. With the progress of material science, sensor technology is becoming more and more mature, and there are more and more kinds of sensors. In addition to semiconductor materials and ceramic materials used in the early stage, the development of optical fibers and superconducting materials provides a material basis for the development of sensors. For example, according to the fact that many semiconductor materials based on silicon are easy to be miniaturized, integrated, multifunctional and intelligent, and semiconductor photothermal detection instruments have the characteristics of high sensitivity, high precision and non-contact, modern sensors such as infrared sensors, laser sensors and optical fiber sensors are developed. Among sensitive materials, ceramic materials and organic materials are developing rapidly, and different formulas can be used to mix raw materials, On the basis of precise mixing of chemical components, through high-precision molding and sintering, sensitive materials with recognition function for one or several gases are obtained, which are used to make new gas sensors. In addition, polymer organic sensitive materials are new sensitive materials with application potential, which have attracted great attention in recent years. They can be made into heat sensitive, photosensitive, gas sensitive, humidity sensitive, force sensitive, ion sensitive and biological sensitive sensors. The continuous development of sensor technology also promotes the development of newer materials, such as nano materials. NRC company of the United States has developed nano ZrO2 gas sensor to control the emission of motor vehicle exhaust, which has a good effect on purifying the environment and has a broad application prospect. Because the sensor made of nano materials has a huge interface and can provide a large number of gas channels, and the top four imported waste materials are still waste paper, waste plastic, mixed waste metal, metal and alloy waste, the on resistance is very small, which is conducive to the development of the sensor to miniaturization. With the continuous progress of science and technology, more new materials will be born

the development of new sensors is inseparable from the adoption of new processes. The meaning of new technology is very wide. Here, it mainly refers to the micro machining technology which is particularly closely related to the development of emerging sensors. This technology, also known as micromachining technology, is developed with the integrated circuit process in recent years. It is a technology used for microelectronic processing such as ion beam, electron beam, molecular beam, laser beam and chemical etching. At present, it has been increasingly used in the field of sensors, such as sputtering, evaporation, plasma etching, chemical gas deposition (CVD), epitaxy, diffusion, corrosion, lithography, etc, So far, a large number of sensors made by the above process have been reported at home and abroad

intelligent materials refer to the design and control of physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and other parameters of materials, and the development of artificial materials with the characteristics of birth materials or better than the performance of biological materials. Some people believe that materials with the following functions can be called intelligent materials: they have the ability to judge the environment, can adapt, can self diagnose, can self repair, and can self enhance (or time-based function)

the most prominent feature of biological materials is that they have time-based function, so the characteristics of this sensor are differential, and it is sensitive to the variational part. On the contrary, if you are in a certain environment for a long time and get used to it, the sensitivity will decrease. Generally speaking, it can adjust its sensitivity to the environment. In addition to biological materials, the most attractive intelligent materials are shape memory alloys, shape memory ceramics and shape memory polymers. (end)

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